The world’s combined stockpile of nuclear weapons is around 22,000. Of these, nearly 8,000 warheads are considered operational, of which almost 2,000 U.S. and Russian warheads are on high alert, ready for use on short notice. The estimate of nuclear weapons is given below.
Nuclear missiles of the world
There are two type of bombs. One is fission bomb or normally called Atomic Bomb. The second type is fusion bomb and it is also called Hydrogen bomb. Fission bombs splits the nucleus of a heavy atom into smaller ones and the energy released is the difference in the total binding energy of nucleus. Neutrons initiate fission and are released by fission, creating the chain reaction. Fusion bombs joins smaller nuclei to make a larger one and energy released is the difference in total binding energy of nucleus. Nuclei are joined by extreme heat and pressure and is created by fission bomb.
When the bomb goes off it creates a blast wave which is the rapid heating of gases to millions of degrees and creates intense shock wave. The reflection of the blast wave off the ground creates constructive interference called the Match Stem effect. The next effect is thermal radiation. X-rays from the detonation heat the surrounding air, creating a fireball. The fireball gives off intense thermal or infrared or heat radiation. The third effect is the nuclear radiation. Neutrons are emitted from the fission/fusion reaction directly. Gamma rays are emitted from the decay of fission products and air secondary reactions of the nuetrons with the surrounding air. The fourth effect is the EMP or the electro magnetic pulse. Large scale voltage spike is caused by ionization of surrounding air. The fifth effect is the fallout of radioactive particles from bomb and surrounding material falling back to ground from mushroom cloud
Structures are shattered after the bomb explosion. The wind pressure pushes it over. Combustible materials will catch fire. The people if exposed will have inernal damage due to pressure and are thrown about and will also be hit by flying objects. There will be burn and radiation damages on humans. There are two types of radiation effects. First is the somatic effect which is immediate and up to months. Then there is the genetic effects which is a lifetime effects causing cancer etc. Radiation and contamination can be from Alpha particles which is Helium nucleus of 2 protons and 2 neutrons and +2 charge. It can be from electron -1 charge or from positron +1 charge. Thirdly it could be from Gamma rays which have high energy and neutral charge. It could be from Neutron which has neutral charge that comes from fission
Exposure – Roengten = the quantity of gamma rays that will producea charge of 2.58 x 10-4 coulomb in 1 kg of dry air.
Absorbed dose – Rad = the absorption of 100 ergs of ionizing radiation per gram of absorbing material (1 roentgen deposits 94 ergs in 1 gm of body tissue)
Biological dose – Rem = number of rads x RBE
RBE = relative biological effectiveness
Alpha = 10 – 20 (internal, depends on organ)
Beta = 1
Gamma = 1
Neutron = 1 external, 4-10 (internal)
Metric: 1 Gray (Gy) = 1 J/kg
HOW MUCH IS HARMFUL?
50% chance of death (1-6 weeks).
>1,000 rem: almost always lethal in 1-2 weeks.
>5,000 rem: immediate incapacitation, death in 1-2 days.
NUCLEAR ATTACK DEFENSIVE MEASURES
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
FIRST EVENT: Bright flash followed by thermal pulse (8-10 seconds duration)
SECOND EVENT (15 seconds) : Blast wave, rapid rise in pressure followed by extreme winds (in excess of 600 mph), winds last up to 10 seconds, then reverse direction for 1-2 seconds.
THIRD EVENT (first minute): continuous exposure to high radiation
NUCLEAR ATTACK DEFENSIVE MEASURES: PRIORITY OF ACTIONS
COVER EYES/TURN AWAY: protect against flash blindness.
TAKE COVER: any sort of barrier will shield skin from burns.
HOLD ON: injuries to personnel are due to tumbling or being hit by flying objects.
GET BEHIND SOME SUBSTANTIAL SHIELDING: neutrons and gammas penetrate deeply, so get behind metal (best) or any thick object for first minute or so.
FOR SHIPS: expect either the base surge or some sort of sunami (tidal wave) in the next few minutes.
PUT OUT FIRES: over half the fatalities are usually due to secondary fires.
GUARD AGAINST CONTINUED EXPOSURE/CONTAMINATION: use respiratory protection, anti-contamination clothing and/or wash-down systems.